The Romans prayed and worshiped many different gods and goddesses (this is called polytheism). At Vindolanda we have two temples, a number of altars and even some objects which show the gods and goddesses.

Temple to Jupiter Dolichenus

Found in 2009, this temple is for the god Jupiter (the father of all the Roman gods, Zeus in Greek mythology) mixed with Dolichenus the Persian (modern Iran) weather god. Soldiers at Vindolanda would pray to this god to ask for the weather that they want. They could make sacrifices (killing for religious purposes) and a priest could read the entrails to predict what might happen.


We know that this temple was dedicated to Jupiter Dolichenus because the Romans left behind this altar. It says: ‘To Jupiter Best and Greatest of Doliche, Sulpicius Pudens, prefect of the Fourth Cohort of Gauls (France) fulfilled his vow willingly and deserved’. On the side of the altar you can see Jupiter with his thunderbolts standing on a bull. 


Temple to an unknown god

The second temple at Vindolanda is in a Romano-Celtic style. We don’t know which god the temple is dedicated to as the only alter found in it says DEO or ‘to the god’ but we don’t know which god.

Religious objects

We also have lots of objects which relate to the gods like Venus (goddess of love) statues, Apollo (sun god) figurines and the Mercury (god of trade and industry) intaglio (gemstone).



At the end of the Roman empire many people converted to Christianity and we also have evidence of churches on site and an early Christian altar. This is an image of what we think the church might have looked like.