FACT FILE: Roman Soldiers Joining up – the legionary Height: 1.75M (5’8”) tall. Must · have excellent vision and hearing. · be able to read and write. · be a Roman Citizen. Length of service: 25 years. Army organisation 8 soldiers = a contubernium 10 contubernia = a century (80 men) 6 centuries = a cohort (480 men) 10 centuries = a prima cohors (800 men) 9 cohorts + 1 prima cohors = a legion (5120 men) Structure of the army 1: The Legate = commands a legion, always a senator and picked by the emperor. 2: Tribunes = six officers lead by a senior tribune, the Legate’s right hand man. 3: Praefectus Castorum = the camp prefect responsible for building camps when the army is on the move. 4: Primus Pilus = senior centurion. 5: Centurion = in charge of a century. 6: Optio = a centurion, second in command. The Legionary = foot soldier. The Auxiliary = non-citizen soldier from the provinces, grouped into cohorts of 500 or 1,000 men. Earn less money then legionaries. The Cavalry = On horseback and usually in the minority. They cost more money as they had to equip their horse as well as themselves. Special jobs Aquilifer = bears the legion’s standard, topped with the Roman eagle (aquila). Signifer: Carries the standard. In charge of the burial club. Cornicen: the horn blower. Helps you to march in time and plays musical orders such as ‘time to eat’. Weapons Pilum (Javelin) wooden shaft up to 120cm or 4 ft long with a sharp point. Gladius (sword) blade 60cm or 18in long. Covered in a scabbard with a long strap that hangs over the shoulder. Pugio (Dagger) a large secondary weapon also covered in a scabbard. Scutum (Shield) Made of wood and curved to protect the body, about 120cm (48in) high and 70cm (28in) wide. Held together with an iron rim and central hand covering called a boss. Legionary Soldier Auxiliary Soldier Uniform Tunic – short sleeves, the length would vary but usually down to the thighs or knees, made of linen or wool. Bracae or short trousers – needed in northern climates. Lorica – body armour most auxiliary units wore Lorica hamatta or mail armour and Legionaries wore Lorica segmentata or segmented body armour. Helmet – lined and padded to fit this would have protected the head. Boots – studded leather boots were required on the frontier, in warmer climates soldiers wore caligae but these open toe sandals would not suit the Northumbrian climate. Cingulum militare – military belt with studded leather strips hanging down in front. Cloak – made of wool this would have kept you warm in daytime and doubled as a blanket at night. Focale – neck scarf to stop armour from rubbing in at the neck.