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Roman Vindolanda
Roman Army Museum
Vindolanda Trust

Claudius invades Britain

The Claudian armies conquer the south of England and form the first Roman frontier in Britain.


Cartimandua crowned Queen of the Brigantes

Cartimandua crowned Queen of the North of what is now England.


Caractacus is captured

British freedom fighter Caractacus is captured by Cartimandua and handed over to the Romans in chains.


Cartimandua flees her kingdom

Cartimandua deposed by her former husband who resents her close links to Rome, she flees to the south for Roman protection.


Vespasian crowned Emperor

Vespasian becomes the sole Emperor after a time of great change and conflict


First contact, fort 0?

Under the governor of Britain Falvius Cerialis, the first possible outpost fort is built at Vindolanda to the north of what would become the Stanegate Road frontier

Mid AD70's

Agricola becomes governor of Britain

Agricola starts his campaigns in Wales and Northern Britain, eventually pushing north of Vindolanda and Carvoran.


Titus becomes emperor

Titus takes the throne after the death of his father Vespasian



Domitian beomes emperor after the sudden death of his brother Titus.


Agricola is withdrawn from Britain

Agricola leaves Britain, the army settles down on the Stanegate Road frontier


Fort 1

The first timber fort constructed at Vindolanda, garrisoned by the 1st Cohort of Tungrians, commanded by Julius Verecundus.

AD 85

Fort 2

Tungrians upgraded to a millinary cohort of 1000 men, get a new and bigger fort at Vindolanda

AD95 -100


Emperor Nerva becomes Emperor


Trajan becomes Emperor

Trajan takes the throne and reorganises his troops along the Empire's borders


Fort 3

VIIII Batavians replace the I Tungrains at Vindolanda, and get another new fort


Birthday celebrations

Commanding officers wife, Lepidina, is invited to a friend's birthday party along with her husband and family at a nearby fort.

AD100- 11th September

Fort 4

1st Cohort of Tungrians come back to Vindolanda, build fort number 4, and bring some Vadulli cavalry with them.


Hadrian becomes Emperor

On the Death of Trajan, Hadrian comes to the imperial throne


British Rebellion

The British rebel attempting to overthrow Roman rule, the Tungrians take losses


Death of a commander

The 1st cohort of Tungrians lose their commander in battle - the death of Titus Annius


Fort 5

A new fort is built at Vindolanda for the contruction of the Wall - Tungrians


Hadrian commissions his famous Wall

Hadrian Wall construction underway


Death of Hadrian

Hadrian dies in his Villa near Rome


Fort 6

A smaller auxiliary fort replaces fort 5, possibly garrisoned by Nervians from Belgium.


Fort 7

Vindolanda gets its first stone fort - garrison unknown - possibly North African


Fort 8

A smaller base is built over the old town and the old fort site is covered with circular huts making a new native style town at Vindolanda


Severan campaign

The Emperor Septimius Severus brings a large army to Britain to subdue the barbarians in the north, he dies in York of the flu in 211


Betrothal Medallion

A betrothal medallion is tossed into the toilet drain of the Severan commander's house, perhaps representing a broken engagement or broken heart


Fort 8 is torn down

Fort number 8 is carefully dismantled by its garrison, the wells are filled in and the site abandoned


Fort 9

The Forth Cohort of Gauls come to Vindolanda and build the last fort at the site over the demolished ruins of the circular huts



A child is murdered in a barrack room at Vindolanda and buried under the floor.


AD274-280 Abandonment

Vindolanda is abandoned, the town is derelict and the fort granaries are torn down and made useless



Vindolanda stone fort is rebuilt, smaller community moves inside the walls of the last fort, no longer uses the town outside the walls.


New garrison of germanic soldiers

New troops, a Christian church is built at Vindolanda


Roman troop and administration withdrawal

The Roman Army officially ceases to exist in Roman Britain as Roman administration withdraws; warlords take their place inside the fort, such as Brigomaglos


Western granary site partly re-furbished

Western granary site maintained inside the fort, builder drops a strap end in the wall while working.


Vindolanda abandoned

Vindolanda's final occupants desert the site, site now becomes a more desolate ruin as final high standing walls start to collapse


Union of the Crowns

The border lands start the long process to come back under the control of the rule of law


Dr Christopher Hunter

A Durham Physician who visits Vindolanda and writes an account of the bath house being demolished


Act of Union

Crofts start to reappear at Vindolanda and the land comes back into cultivation


The military road

In response to the Jacobite rebellion the government starts the construction of a new road along, beside and sometimes on top of Hadrian's Wall


Anthony Hedley

Clergyman Anthony Hedley purchases Vindolanda, builds a house which is now part of the modern museum and starts modest excavations at the site of the old commanding officer's house


Death of Hedley

Hedley dies of pneumonia before being able to conduct more work and publish his report, his finds are scattered to the winds


John Clayton

The great Hadrian's Wall Antiquarian adds Vindolanda to his estates


Death of Clayton

John Clayton dies but Vindolanda and Carvoran forts both remain part of the Clayton estate


Eric Birley

Eric Birley buys Vindolanda from the Clayton estate, he moves into the old Hedley cottage and starts new excavations


Thomas Harding

Thomas Harding, a local farmer purchases Vindolanda and the site becomes a working farm once again


The Vindolanda Trust

The 'camp field' of the 3rd and 4th century remains aty Vindolanda is purchased from the sale of Thomas Hardings farm and a new chartiy is formed, the Vindolanda Trust


Purchase of Carvoran fort

The newly formed Vindolanda trust purchases the nearby fort of Carvoran, preserving the remains for future investigation and protecting them ffrom further damage by farming


The first writing tablet

The very first Vindolanda writing tablet is found, sock and underpants, by Robin Birley on his excavations at the site, changing almost overnight our perceptions of Roman Britain


The museum

In 1974 the Vindolanda Trust raises enough money to buy the old Hedley and Birley home, to become the Vindolanda Museum


The bonfire site

One of the largest collections of writng tablets to come from the site is discovered on a bonfire site outside the VIIII Batavians commander's house


Child skeleton found

The buried remains of the cAD220 murder victim are found and carefully recovered from the barracks excavations