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Roman Vindolanda
Roman Army Museum
Vindolanda Trust

Claudius invades Britain

The Claudian armies conquer the south of England and form the first Roman frontier in Britain.

AD43

Cartimandua crowned Queen of the Brigantes

Cartimandua crowned Queen of the North of what is now England.

AD43

Caractacus is captured

British freedom fighter Caractacus is captured by Cartimandua and handed over to the Romans in chains.

AD51

Cartimandua flees her kingdom

Cartimandua deposed by her former husband who resents her close links to Rome, she flees to the south for Roman protection.

AD69

Vespasian crowned Emperor

Vespasian becomes the sole Emperor after a time of great change and conflict

AD69

First contact, fort 0?

Under the governor of Britain Falvius Cerialis, the first possible outpost fort is built at Vindolanda to the north of what would become the Stanegate Road frontier

Mid AD70's

Agricola becomes governor of Britain

Agricola starts his campaigns in Wales and Northern Britain, eventually pushing north of Vindolanda and Carvoran.

AD77

Titus becomes emperor

Titus takes the throne after the death of his father Vespasian

AD79-91

Domitian

Domitian beomes emperor after the sudden death of his brother Titus.

AD81

Agricola is withdrawn from Britain

Agricola leaves Britain, the army settles down on the Stanegate Road frontier

AD85

Fort 1

The first timber fort constructed at Vindolanda, garrisoned by the 1st Cohort of Tungrians, commanded by Julius Verecundus.

AD 85

Fort 2

Tungrians upgraded to a millinary cohort of 1000 men, get a new and bigger fort at Vindolanda

AD95 -100

Nerva

Emperor Nerva becomes Emperor

AD96

Trajan becomes Emperor

Trajan takes the throne and reorganises his troops along the Empire's borders

AD98

Fort 3

VIIII Batavians replace the I Tungrains at Vindolanda, and get another new fort

AD100-105

Birthday celebrations

Commanding officers wife, Lepidina, is invited to a friend's birthday party along with her husband and family at a nearby fort.

AD100- 11th September

Fort 4

1st Cohort of Tungrians come back to Vindolanda, build fort number 4, and bring some Vadulli cavalry with them.

AD105-120

Hadrian becomes Emperor

On the Death of Trajan, Hadrian comes to the imperial throne

AD117

British Rebellion

The British rebel attempting to overthrow Roman rule, the Tungrians take losses

AD117

Death of a commander

The 1st cohort of Tungrians lose their commander in battle - the death of Titus Annius

AD117

Fort 5

A new fort is built at Vindolanda for the contruction of the Wall - Tungrians

AD120-130

Hadrian commissions his famous Wall

Hadrian Wall construction underway

AD121-122

Death of Hadrian

Hadrian dies in his Villa near Rome

AD138

Fort 6

A smaller auxiliary fort replaces fort 5, possibly garrisoned by Nervians from Belgium.

AD140-160

Fort 7

Vindolanda gets its first stone fort - garrison unknown - possibly North African

AD160-200

Fort 8

A smaller base is built over the old town and the old fort site is covered with circular huts making a new native style town at Vindolanda

AD200-212

Severan campaign

The Emperor Septimius Severus brings a large army to Britain to subdue the barbarians in the north, he dies in York of the flu in 211

AD208-211

Betrothal Medallion

A betrothal medallion is tossed into the toilet drain of the Severan commander's house, perhaps representing a broken engagement or broken heart

AD211

Fort 8 is torn down

Fort number 8 is carefully dismantled by its garrison, the wells are filled in and the site abandoned

AD211-212

Fort 9

The Forth Cohort of Gauls come to Vindolanda and build the last fort at the site over the demolished ruins of the circular huts

AD213

Murder

A child is murdered in a barrack room at Vindolanda and buried under the floor.

AD220

AD274-280 Abandonment

Vindolanda is abandoned, the town is derelict and the fort granaries are torn down and made useless

AD274-280

Reoccupation

Vindolanda stone fort is rebuilt, smaller community moves inside the walls of the last fort, no longer uses the town outside the walls.

AD300-410

New garrison of germanic soldiers

New troops, a Christian church is built at Vindolanda

AD367

Roman troop and administration withdrawal

The Roman Army officially ceases to exist in Roman Britain as Roman administration withdraws; warlords take their place inside the fort, such as Brigomaglos

AD410-500

Western granary site partly re-furbished

Western granary site maintained inside the fort, builder drops a strap end in the wall while working.

AD800

Vindolanda abandoned

Vindolanda's final occupants desert the site, site now becomes a more desolate ruin as final high standing walls start to collapse

AD900

Union of the Crowns

The border lands start the long process to come back under the control of the rule of law

AD1603

Dr Christopher Hunter

A Durham Physician who visits Vindolanda and writes an account of the bath house being demolished

AD1702

Act of Union

Crofts start to reappear at Vindolanda and the land comes back into cultivation

AD1707

The military road

In response to the Jacobite rebellion the government starts the construction of a new road along, beside and sometimes on top of Hadrian's Wall

AD1746

Anthony Hedley

Clergyman Anthony Hedley purchases Vindolanda, builds a house which is now part of the modern museum and starts modest excavations at the site of the old commanding officer's house

AD1831

Death of Hedley

Hedley dies of pneumonia before being able to conduct more work and publish his report, his finds are scattered to the winds

AD1835

John Clayton

The great Hadrian's Wall Antiquarian adds Vindolanda to his estates

AD1863

Death of Clayton

John Clayton dies but Vindolanda and Carvoran forts both remain part of the Clayton estate

AD1890

Eric Birley

Eric Birley buys Vindolanda from the Clayton estate, he moves into the old Hedley cottage and starts new excavations

AD1929

Thomas Harding

Thomas Harding, a local farmer purchases Vindolanda and the site becomes a working farm once again

AD1950

The Vindolanda Trust

The 'camp field' of the 3rd and 4th century remains aty Vindolanda is purchased from the sale of Thomas Hardings farm and a new chartiy is formed, the Vindolanda Trust

AD1970

Purchase of Carvoran fort

The newly formed Vindolanda trust purchases the nearby fort of Carvoran, preserving the remains for future investigation and protecting them ffrom further damage by farming

AD1972

The first writing tablet

The very first Vindolanda writing tablet is found, sock and underpants, by Robin Birley on his excavations at the site, changing almost overnight our perceptions of Roman Britain

AD1973

The museum

In 1974 the Vindolanda Trust raises enough money to buy the old Hedley and Birley home, to become the Vindolanda Museum

AD1974

The bonfire site

One of the largest collections of writng tablets to come from the site is discovered on a bonfire site outside the VIIII Batavians commander's house

AD1992

Child skeleton found

The buried remains of the cAD220 murder victim are found and carefully recovered from the barracks excavations

AD2010