Excavation Week 4

Vindolanda Trust - Wednesday, April 30, 2014
The 3rd / 4th century fort

Excavation proceeding extremely well in the fort with over 160 artefacts recovered including many small beads made from glass and jet and some horse gear. Large late 4th century barrack walls continuing to appear as we head towards the south wall of the fort. Every now and then the excavators are bathed in warm golden sunshine and things are looking good. Over the top of the 4th century barracks are a series of later walls, floors and surfaces which can only be post-Roman and we continue to find the remains of post pits later than those, dug through the Roman layers, for timber buildings which covered this part of the site in the 5th and 6th centuries.

A great deal of late 4 century pottery is coming from the last Roman layers, but unlike last season very few arrowheads thus far. This is possibly due to the high levels of disturbance in this area from later stone robbers making it tricky to piece back together all of the clues about the use of the later Roman walls and surfaces.

Fort excavations- looking west

Vicus - earlier forts

In the vicus, below extramural buildings XXX and XXXII things are also progressing well but here we have encountered over a metre of rubble, boulder clay and a suspended water table making it extremely hard work getting to the earlier Roman remains. However, as you can see from the pictures below we have encountered a well made Antonine road and yard, complete with a wide drain running through its middle, and below this surface we have managed in one section to cut down to the earlier Hadrianic surfaces below, another street with a wattle and daub lined drain. Here most of the artefacts consist of potter and a huge volume of animal bone, beautifully preserved by the anaerobic conditions. I expect we will encounter our first wooden artefacts and leather shoes shortly. Below this level, we may have to excavate a further 2-4m before we find natural clay.

Antonine street level below the foundations of the Severan barracks of XXXII

Getting down to the Hadrianic levels - and the water - below XXXII

2014 Post-excavation work begins at Vindolanda

Vindolanda Trust - Tuesday, April 22, 2014
This week marks the start of five months work by a team of volunteers at Vindolanda. Volunteers work in teams of three or four, many of them for up to six weeks, or whatever time commitment they can make.

Joyce Fisher getting to grips with the first pottery finds of the 2014 season!

The post-excavation volunteers' work is not done in the excavation trenches. They work quietly in the processing shed, often out of sight of the visitors. However, their labour on the pottery sherds, CBM, Roman glass and other bulk finds are the first vital steps in building an understanding what the people who lived a Vindolanda used in their everyday lives, how they used (and often re-used) their ceramic objects, and how much pottery people might have had access to at Roman Vindolanda.

The first task is a bit like doing the washing up at home, but minus the washing up liquid! The photo below shows the typical washing-up kit, that consists of basins, rubber gloves, scrubbing brushes for stubborn dirt, toothbrushes and picks for more gentle cleaning of finer vessels.

When all the washing is done you need somewhere to lay out the finds. The blue trays in the photo below are lined with newspaper and each tray must contain a label to identify the context which the finds came from. This way we can keep a close eye on where the finds came from and develop an understanding of the types of vessels coming from different parts of the site.

It can take up to two weeks for all the finds to dry out properly, but once they do, the work of sorting, categorising wares, counting sherds and weighing can begin. We follow guidelines developed by the Study Group for Roman Pottery and this makes it possible to compare our pottery to pottery recorded in a similar way from other sites in Roman Britain. It takes a bit of practice to get this part of the process right and there needs to be space and a bit of peace and quiet for the volunteers who do this work. Their workspace is shown in the photo below. Good light is essential so that features of different categories of Roman pottery can be distinguished!

Once the sorting and quantification of material from each context is done a paper record is made. The files are in the big box in the photo above! This record is transferred onto a spreadsheet and across the 2014 season a cumulative record builds up. Last year we excavated about 460 KG of pottery from stratified contexts across the site! We are prepared for similar quantities this year.

The finds are bagged after quantification and there is a temporary space for the bagged up material. After bagging, the finds are taken down to the museum pottery workshop, where further detailed specialist work can take place. The temporary storage space is shown below.

As the season goes on, blog posts from the post-excavation area will profile progress and interesting highlights from among the finds. There will also be profiles of more typical vessels. However much, much more can always be seen by visiting us at Vindolanda on site and perusing our museum, as well as getting close to the soldiers themselves at the Roman Army Museum.

Kate Sheehan-Finn
Excavation Supervisor and Research Assistant.