Excavation update – period 7
A great deal has happened over the past few weeks on the excavations, the annual University of Western Ontario field school has finished for another year, and what a successful year they have had. The students were excellent this year, a credit to their University and alongside the regular Vindolanda volunteers they worked exceptionally hard to further the research aims of the site and build on their own knowledge of Roman Vindolanda. You can see what they thought about their experience by looking at the field school blog page https://westernclassicalstudies.wordpress.com/
The friends of Vindolanda evening was another great success and both excavation areas, and post-excavation, have produced some wonderful artefacts and knowledge about the site. It is unusual for me to be quite so excited about Roman bricks and tile, as we find so many of them, but when people leave their individual marks upon these artefacts they can be transformed from the mundane to something rather more special, a more direct and vivid connection to the people of the past.
As usual we will deal with the two excavations separately, below the vicus and the inside the 3rd -4th century fort, but we also add an update on the post-excavation from Lauren.
This week is a site recording week with no excavation taking place. We have Adam Stanford taking superb air photo’s (http://www.adam-stanford.co.uk/ - https://www.facebook.com/pages/Adam-Stanford-Photography/134553846639383) and 3D modelling. The team draws breath and re-fills the biscuit barrel in the excavation shed for the big push towards the rest of the season.
I hope you enjoy reading about the excavations and continue to follow what happens next. There are 5 sessions to go (9 weeks of excavations) and as always the best is yet to come.
Dr Andrew Birley
Director of Excavations
Picture of the Canadian field school.
Below the vicus
Here the team concentrated on three areas, under the foundations of the Severan barrack block buildings sites XXX and XXXII and under the road which separated them. Below site XXX the large wooden outer walls of the period IV (cAD105-120) wattle and daub buildings continued to emerge. Indeed, the smaller main oak uprights which had been a feature thus far were steadily being replaced with significantly larger wooden posts as the excavations continued to the south, suggesting the possibility that the back range of the building may have been structurally sound/strong enough to support a second floor. This has raised the hope that we are indeed within the walls of the period IV headquarters building and that the rooms encountered thus far were merely the western side rooms. From here, in the period V/VI demolition layers above the building a footprint was found beautifully preserved on a roof tile.
Mel with roof tile and footprints and birdprints
Under site XXXII to the east a similar picture started to build, larger posts from the cAD105-120, timber clad floors and walls and some wonderfully preserved pottery, Roman shoes and copper alloy artefacts. Here the team encountered large Roman ovens from the level above their target building (period IV) and this slowed the work down a little as the necessary recording and careful excavation took place. The picture of industry, from Hadrianic times into the Antonine period, found elsewhere in the surrounding structures continued to show a strong presence, reaffirming Vindolanda as a place where things were made and mended during these periods.
Below the Severan roadway, so carefully cleaned and recorded in previous weeks, the very large and extremely fine via principalis (main street) of the period IV fort (cAD105-120) running east/west with large northern roadside drain was carefully excavated. The drain produced more fine pottery and a wonderful, beautifully preserved and still working copper alloy brooch. The exploration and fixing the position of this road was important as it helped to contextualise the surrounding buildings and reaffirm their central position within the extremely large period IV fort (which was at least three times the size of the last stone fort).
Picture of the brooch.
Inside the 3rd – 4th century fort
Roads, ramparts, walls and more roads were the themes of the past few weeks of excavation inside the fort. Big archaeology in a big spaces. The team focused most of its attention on the southern rampart defences of the last stone fort, re-examining an area which was partially excavated in 1999-2000 when the fort wall was originally examined in this area. After the removal of the heavy clay rampart took place (to examine the area for clay ovens, rampart pits and construction debris for the cAD213 fort) the excavators deepened the trenches to look for the earlier stone forts southern defences near the toilet block on the south eastern corner of the fort. This was to prove to be a difficult task as the Antonine fort wall had been securely buried below several metres of boulder clay and turf for the re-building of the stone fort in the 3rd century. The work was to prove to be successful and the earlier fort wall started to emerge, bashed by later building work, but still an impressive structure. The depth is now 4metres below the turf from the post-Roman to Antonine in this area. There are five Roman forts to go below the Antonine levels and it will be interesting to see if we reach new and exciting levels of preservation in this area due to the unprecedented volume and depth of clay that has been used to build up the landscape at this point.
Antonine fort wall excavation - before and after excavation period VII
Elsewhere inside the fort at 3rd and 4th century network of roads to the south of the headquarters building moved another step towards being re-opened for the first time in 1600 years. The final post-Roman structure on top of the via decumana (south street) was removed so that the road levels below can be explored and other members of the team worked inside the officers apartments to the south of the commanding officers house. This final area will receive a lot of attention in the coming weeks and months as the excavations of this area reach a crucial juncture, to a point where consolidation briefs can be drawn up for the future preservation and enjoyment of these buildings.
3D model late Roman or post-roman building on the via decumana
Although the artefacts from the later levels of the site are generally not as well preserved as those from earlier periods the excavation of the ramparts produced another wonderful tile, one with a dog print and a carved inscription of Fidelis on it. Perhaps the name of a slave? Or even the dog that left the footprint on the tile? Who knows. But either way a welcome animal and human intervention.
Picture of Sarah with her tile.
Now we are past our half-way point of excavations this season, I wanted to give an update on what is happening post-excavation.
The post-ex volunteers are similar to the excavation ones, and join us in the excavation shed for two week periods.
The season so far has seen some very dedicated volunteers work tirelessly and thoroughly to wash and categorise the bulk finds coming from both excavations areas.
They work with all types of pottery found at the site, but also glass, brick and tile, iron, slag and bone.
Once the finds are washed and dried, they then sort them in to categories, count and weigh the sherds, and then bag them according to those categories. This enables us, and any others, who wish to look at certain aspects of the collections, or distribution, find what they need much more efficiently.
(Finds being washed and dried) (Finds being categorised)
One of the most exciting parts of post excavation is finding stamps or graffiti, or even small finds that were missed when the find was first excavated (usually as it is covered in mud!) Here are some of the hidden gems that appeared once the washing and drying process was completed.
(Partial spindle whorl) (Tile with a paw print)
(Stamp on an amphora handle)
I would just like to take this opportunity to thank all the post-ex volunteers that I have had the pleasure to work with so far for their hard work. It is an essential and important part of the excavation process and I look forward to what the rest of the season may uncover!