2015 excavations have started.
Hello and welcome back to the Frontier in Transition archaeological project at Vindolanda.
Now we have the first two weeks of the excavation season under our belts we can offer a sensible update on the progress of the work. The usual fantastic mix of Vindolanda volunteers was complimented by up to 16 members of the defence archaeological group (DAG) as part of exercise Mars-Tablet which was itself a part of Operation Nightingale. Operation Nightingale gives former and still active serving and injured army, navy and air force personnel the opportunity to take part in archaeological research, introducing them to a different community. They are a great bunch of people, inspirational to everyone who met them and each one put in a hard shift over the two weeks. We are really sad to say goodbye to them but we hope that this will be just the start of their Vindolanda adventures. We must say a big thank you to them and the whole team for their effort, and of course a special thank you to the staff at Spade Adam Air-Force base for showing them superb hospitality and generosity during their two week stay.
The team had to put up with some horrendous weather conditions in week one with a combination of snow/sleet and torrential rain but luckily by week two each day brought warm and bright sunshine. A remarkable amount has been achieved in only a short period of time. For the first few sessions we have focused our efforts on the remains inside the last stone fort (it is still far too wet for the vicus). Here the excavators explored three areas which are marked on the plan below:
These areas included: the water tank in the north of the trench (area 1). The via Decumana and the pit and features cut through it (area 2) and the large free standing building at the south of the barracks adjacent to the south gate of the fort (area 3).
Perhaps the greatest discovery was that the water tank, which started to be uncovered at the very end of the last season, was encased in an outer wall, effectively enclosing the tank in the middle of a temple or shrine. The team focused on locating the north and south walls, defining a header tank at the east and exposing the full extent of the main tank itself to the west. The building would have been accessed from the road to the east, although one can imagine that most may have not been permitted to enter. Instead they could have obtained their water from the small header tank in front of the building and been restricted to looking into the temple to see a raised platform at the back, perhaps with the effigy of the god or goddess reflected in the water below. Eventually the temple fell out of use and modifications to the structure only retained the tank as a utilitarian water feature until eventually this too was discarded and abandoned, to be filled in with fine facing stones and rubble before flag stones covered over its form, the original purpose perhaps utterly forgotten.
Excavation of the tank and temple area.
As the excavations progresses in the next few weeks we will hope to uncover the back of the temple and continue to work to lower the floor of the tank itself, removing the tones of soil and rubble fill to see how deep the tank actually is. If we are lucky it will have a fine flagged base and perhaps some organically preserved rubbish that has been tossed inside before the Roman backfilling began in earnest. Either way this is a fine and impressive addition to the remains at Vindolanda. As we get deeper in the tank we will continue to 3D model each layer as we carefully record its contents, and an image of these 3D models will be posted in the blog as the excavation continues.
A 3D model of the water tank with its capping flagstones on top.
Below the surface of the via decumana are the remains of the Antonine (mid to late 2nd century) via praetoria (the front street of an earlier fort) with fine stone carved drainage blocks flanking a well-mettled road surface. More of this feature will be revealed as excavations continue and once we have a section open to view we will place some good photographs of this area into the blog.The free-standing building to the south of the fort barracks has come along, its two major construction phases gaining definition as piles of rubble have been removed to expose the original floor levels. It is beside this building, re-used as a simple building stone, that a fine carving of a hare and hound was discovered last week. A likely source for such a hunting scene may have been a temple to Diana, the goddess of hunting.